• What is the nature of existence?
  • Do abstract entities (numbers, concepts) exist independently of the human mind?
  • Is the universe deterministic or indeterministic?
  • What is the relationship between mind and body?
  • Does free will exist, or are our actions determined?


  • What is knowledge, and how is it distinguished from belief?
  • How do we acquire knowledge?
  • Can we trust our senses as reliable sources of knowledge?
  • Is all knowledge derived from experience, or are there innate ideas?
  • What are the limits of human understanding?


  • What is the nature of morality?
  • Are moral values objective or subjective?
  • How do we determine what actions are morally right or wrong?
  • What is the relationship between self-interest and morality?
  • Can ethics be universal, or is it culturally relative?


  • What is the definition of beauty?
  • How does art evoke emotional and aesthetic experiences?
  • Is artistic taste subjective or objective?
  • What is the role of art in society?
  • How does aesthetic appreciation contribute to human well-being?


  • What is the nature of valid reasoning?
  • Can all knowledge be derived through logical reasoning?
  • What are the limits of what can be expressed or proved through logic?
  • How does logic relate to language and meaning?
  • Is there a universal logic, or are there multiple valid logics?

Political Philosophy:

  • What principles should govern political authority?
  • Is political power inherently corrupting?
  • How should resources and opportunities be distributed in a just society?
  • What is the role of citizens in shaping political systems?
  • How can diverse cultural and ethical perspectives coexist in a political society?

These enduring questions have sparked centuries of philosophical inquiry, leading to diverse perspectives, debates, and insights that continue to shape the discipline of philosophy.